Horse riding, also known as Equestrianism or horseback riding, consists the disciplines of riding, driving, or vaulting with horses. This use of horses might vary from practical working purposes such as transportation, police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch; public service, in traditional ceremonies (parades, funerals), police and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue; recreational activities such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking; artistic to cultural exercises, and competitive sport, including dressage, endurance riding, eventing, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, vaulting, polo, horse racing, driving, and rodeo. Besides, there are some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows and in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony, often pulling carriages and for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
There’s no record of the the exact date horses were domesticated and first ridden, the best estimate is approximately 3000 – 3500 BC., near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion that was buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven as working animals in 2500 BC. In ancient times, the horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation, trade and agriculture. Horses lived in North America, but died out at the end of the Ice Age and were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493.
Horse riding or Equestrianism was then become a form of sport and was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events.